This catalog and identification guide for the square
Islamic coins of Spain, Portugal, and North Africa has
four hundred entries organized by issuing dynasty, from
the Muwahhid (starting 524 a.h./1130 a.d.) through Nasrid,
Hudid, Hafsid, Marinid, Wattasid, Sadian Sharifs,
and ending with the Ottomans (last square coin in 1232
While most coins were struck in silver, the few square
gold and bronze coins, including the round to octagonal
bronze Nasrid fals, are included. A brief history of millares,
the Christian imitations of the Muwahhid dirham, is given
along with some illustrations.
Each coin entry is accompanied with the legends written
in Arabic and English, sizes, masses, and references.
Hundreds of simple line drawings illustrate many of the
coin entries. Tables include thumbnail sketches, legends,
rulers, dates on coins, correlations with Vives, Hazard,
and Medina numbers, mint names, a map, and bibliography.